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Global Forests -
Little Known or Interesting Factoids About Trees and Tree Physiology

R.I.P. Jim Rediker

Karen Rockoff is the only ISA certified
arborist with

BEWARE- There are other persons fraudulently representing These persons are not authorized or licensed to use the name or inject with the chemjet system. Please contact Karen Rockoff immediately if these persons attempt to solicit these services. 

Contact:  Cell: 830.955.0304
                     Karen Rockoff  Arborist  - TDA Certified

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Copyright Chemjet Trading Pty,Ltd, Australia

The Chemjet®   syringe versus Macro Injection

The CHEMJET®  A simple, hand-held, plastic liquid injector for trees bears a likeness to an overgrown syringe and works on much the same principle. The system is a cost efficient method for injecting insecticides, fungicides, fertilizers, and trace elements into any limb or trunk of 2 in. diameter or greater. After an injector has been filled by submerging its tip in solution and pulling up on the spring-loaded "T" handle which is then 1/4 twist locked, it is ready to be tightly inserted into a pre-drilled hole and unlocked. The internal spring then applies steady pressure delivering the injector's contents, usually in 3 to 5 hours depending on weather and sap viscosity. Once empty, The CHEMJET® injectors with their bright red handles are easily seen, quickly retrieved, cleaned, and ready for use again. 

The CHEMJET®  Micro-injection technique requires a good understanding of how a tree system absorbs nutrients, fungicides and insecticides, compartmentalizes wounds, and recovers from the small injury created during the process. To follow the basic guidelines of micro-injection, the arborist / technician must know proper placement, size, and depth of the injection hole, and the acceptable conditions under which proper injections should take place. When these chemicals are injected into the sap stream of the tree, the material moves quickly throughout the entire vascular system. The individual components go directly to where they are needed for optimum benefit to the tree.

The CHEMJET®   Micro-injection is a type of trunk injection in which small amounts chemicals, are introduced into shallow trunk wounds around the base of a tree. Within a few hours after injection, the chemicals are distributed systemically to branches, leaves and roots by sap movement within the tree. It has been suggested that because the xylem of the tree accepts the liquids based on its porosity, the term infusion is more appropriate than injection when describing the movement of systemic liquids into trees.

The Chemjet® Tree injector saves labor, time and money... For a 24" diameter tree it takes less than 10 minutes to drill and place and unlock the 24 injectors around the trunk stem 4-6 inches above the soil line.

The Macro Method take about 1 1/4 hours to expose the root flares,4-6 inches below the soil level and another 1/2 hour to drill 72 holes and connect up the harness and get the whole apparatus working.

The Chemjet®  Tree Injectors with the higher concentration delivers the same prescribed volume of the fungicide ( Propiconazole 14.3 % MEC ) at the preventive rate of 10 mils per diameter inch, in a 50% water/chemical  solution measured at 20 mils per injector.  Each injector is placed every 3" apart around the trunk stem 4-6 inches above the trunk flare. The entire job is out of the dirt.

The Macro Method requires 24 Liters of water, 240 mils of propiconazole, (This is a very low concentration ratio)   2 or 3 pump-up garden sprayers with pressure regulators and gages, on - off valves, and 72 inter-connected injection tees with PVC tubing, which is about 75 feet long. That is a lot equipment, a lot of drilling and tapping  in the tees, and all the while, the job is in the dirt, and, work, work, etc, etc, etc.........

The Chemjet®   Injectgion procedure, with the higher concentration is much like a booster shot of an antibiotic only with far more effective results using the tree's natural transport system and using the sap within the tree for dilution and distribution throughout the entire tree to the areas where they are most effective.                                                                    
The Chemjet® drill size: 11/64" = O which is half the diameter size of Macro drill size: 5/16" = O   Note: The volume comparison, the 11/64” drill portal is 75% less than the 5/16" drill portal.

 The Damage Factor :  For treating  a 24 inch diameter tree.

The Chemjet®. with the 11/64" dirll it only requires just 24 small drill portals, if placed end to end would cut a gash only 4 inches long 3/4" -1" deep and 11/64 " wide and have a 75% less, the total volume.

The Macro Method with the 5/16" drill employs a minimum of 72 drill portals, if placed end to end, that would cut a gash only 24 inches long 3/4" -1" deep and 5/16" wide and have a total volume of more than 75%.

The Chemjet® provides with a minimum of amount of collateral damage which is far less invasive and the wound closure, due to the small shallow holes will close within a few short weeks. The tree can focus less energy to recover from the fewer and much smaller drill portals.

The Macro Method  The dirt and debris is replaced over the root flares, filling many drill portals creating vectors for soil borne pathogenic infection, tissue degradation and canker infection. Wound closure is slower in the root flare area due to lack of chemical ability. Excessive damage to this most critical transition area of the trunk flares, limits the sap and nutrient movement to and from the roots and can cause serious loss of vigor or eventual death.

The Chemjet®  Requires placement of one injector per diameter inch, that relates to one injector placed every 3" apart around the circumference of the tree. e.g. : 24 inch diameter tree equals 24 drill portals using a11/64' drill bit.  

The Macro Method,  requires three drill portals for each diameter inch placed around the root flares area and that adds up to 72 large holesat 5/16" dia and that  is twice the diameter of the The Chemjet® system and each hole is 75% greater in volume. For retreatment 2 years later that doubles the amount of damage.

The Chemjet® technique is focused on new developing systemic formulations of insecticides, fungicides and mineral nutrients that are very effective in low volumes, maximizing uptake and distribution and at the same time minimizing wound effects. Inadequate distribution will leave the trees poorly protected.  The Chemjet® is very effective in the treatment of Oak Wilt and other tree deficiencies.

The Macro Method: Is limited only for the treatment of Oak Wilt and the Dutch Elm Disease.

The Chemjet®    All in All........ Your tree wins ! !

Which is better ?….This" O " or this "O" See... no contest ..!! “ The Chemjet®

The Macro Method: Has been around for more that 50 years and has evolved from the more outrageous, 55 gal. barrels, 5 gal plastic jugs and anything that might fit the bill and even douche bags, tied up in the tree on a gravity flow system. It was inherited from the Eastern United States, which was marketed by Elm Research Institute, Harrisville, N.H. to treat trees for Dutch Elm Disease. The macro method slowly evolved to the more modest use of the garden pump up sprayer. Researched…. NO it has strictly evolved from trial and error and passed down from the 50's and 60's era to the present day. That is all the facts behind what ever you call the in-depth research about the Macro Method with the philosophy that more damage is better.

Texas A. & M. did not research this idea, it was a hand me down from centuries past. It is toted and demonstrated as an original idea and method to treat Oak Wilt and is now the only method that Texas A. & M. and the Texas Forest Service endorse as their HALLMARK treatment method. As this method was used through all their research on to acertain the best solution to fight oak wilt. This application no doubt will be here for another 50 years unless they change. 

The CHEMJET®, Injector Syringe, (Australian made) one of the best micro injection systems that is now available on the market.  It is a re-usable, spring loaded syringe which is very practical, and unlike the pre-filled injection capsules, are one time use disposable products. The Chemjet® can be re-used 1000 times with proper care and handling.

The CHEMJET®, has 30 years in the field application, world wide from Australia, Micro Asia, India to South Africa, every country throughout Europe, in the tree and wine industries in California, for Sudden Oak Death, the avocado and wine industries. It is opening doors in Texas and is becoming a fine tool for the home / land owners to treat our majestic oaks trees for the devistationg disease of oak wilt.

I have used the CHEMJET®, for more than two years. I have sold over 2000 and  like all my customers are more than satisfied with their effective injection techniques which maximize uptake and distribution and minimize any effects of invasive wounding by more that 85%, and labor by 80% . The CHEMJET®, is a simple tool and method that can be put in the hands of the land / home owner that many would not consider to treat their trees and many trees, that otherwise would have slipped through the cracks and scum to oak wilt because people don't feel comfortable with the Macro Method.  It all comes down to Time,  Labor, Ecomomics, Reduced Damage and the Enviironment

The Chemjet Advantage Simply The Best - Treatment of Choice for Professional Arborist.

The Simplest and Most Effective Micro-Injection System Ever Developed For Tree Injection

    1. No Complicated Cumbersome Equipment or  Expensive Devices.  No Tissue Damage From High Pressure Injections
    2. Safest Device Available
    3. Low Pressure Infusion - 23Lb Spring Force Applying Constant Low Pressure
    4. Prescription Formulation Dosages of Insecticides - Fungicides and Nutrients 5,10, 15, or 20 mil.  A More Accurate Prescription Application
    5. Efficient Formulation Products Moves Quickly to Where it is Needed Within The Tree
    6. Environmental Friendly - Injection Targets Directly Within The Tree - No Exposure to the Surrounding Area The treatment is entirely within the tree and the dosages are determined precisely by the size of the tree. The material does not have to penetrate the soil, the leaves or the bark to be come effective, it goes to work immediately.
    7. Economical, Totally Reusable Hundreds of Times - No Disposable of Apparatus After Use - No waste of Product. Formulation Products Are Use In Much SmallerQuantity Amounts and Will Last Up To 2 years.
    8. Few Tools Required - Cordless Drill and Wood Chisel - No Cumbersome Macro Injection Equipment And         Digging Tools Required
    9. User Friendly - Faster and Easy to Use - No Applicator Frustration - Hands on Training.  Injection can be a welcome alternative for the Home / Land owner, their neighborhoods for the green industry professional.
    10. Reduced Drill size 11/64 or 4.2 mm - Reduced Tissue Damage - Faster Wound Closure
    11. Scientifically Proven Field Tested for Over 30 Years - Used World Wide.
    12. No air, Soil or Groundwater Contamination Occurs--Unlike Other Method, Birds, Fish, Beneficial Insects And Surrounding Foliage Aren't Harmed. Can Be Applied Under All Weather Conditions, Hot, Dry, Windy or Rainy Conditions And Over Open Water.

A macro-injection wound  as defined, is a wound that has a diameter 3/8" or greater and penetrates into the xylem one to several inches .

A micro-injection wound  is one that has a diameter of 3/1 6" or less and penetrates into the xylem 3/4" or less.

Risk/Benefit  Clearly the smaller the wound the less potential for the "degree of injury caused by the wound"  to come into play. Accordingly, if we have procedures that will reduce the wound effect these should be employed. Several researchers have evidence to demonstrate that the potential risk from macro-injections is quite high when weighed against the benefit.  Well documented research by Shigo has shown that micro-injection wounds caused by the injection technology can be well tolerated by the tree even when made in trunk flare and up the stem to approximately 4.5' above ground.

More recent research has demonstrated that the accepted Micro Injection technique has been improved upon by reducing the drill size to 11/64" diameter bit in a portable drill to make the wound in the root flare. The resulting drill wound is cleaner edged and the depth is under more precise control. These factors greatly facilitate wound closure because the degree of injury resulting from the mechanical wound is minimized. In addition the injected material is more rapidly translocated away from the injection site. It should be clear from the above that when injecting trees, micro-injection offers the greatest benefit to the tree, while significantly minimizing the risk inherent in the macro-injection technique.

Size and type of wound. The wound should be as clean edged, small and shallow as possible. Several investigators make a strong case for this type of wound.

Areas requiring more research.  Of equal importance is the phytotoxic potential of the chemicals being introduced into the tree via injection. Much work is required in this area. Most formulations currently on the market have been re-evaluated with emphasis on modifying the pH and concentrations of these chemicals to be more compatible with the biochemistry of the plant. It must be emphasized that a number of these products are currently tolerated by the tree and are efficaceous.

A Job for the Texas Forest Service: Training sessions under the guidance of competent professionals in micro  injection technology should be mandatory to the correct development of micro injection procedures and unless we continue to emphasize sound micro injection techniques, the ever increasing failures in tree injections will eventually cause systemic chemical treatments in tree culture to fall into disrepute.  When used properly, the injection method does have the potential to benefit trees. But when used improperly, it will cause more harm than help.

Annual injections. The application of macro-injections annually could increase the risk of subsequent damage to the tree.  The use of annual micro-injections for pest control has been under research for the past several years with good results relative to wound closure. However, more research should continue is this area. When annual Micro-injections are employed, the injection sites must be staggered.

Current and future role of injections. There is significant evidence now to establish the efficacy of the current injection technology in the management of our tree populations whether for fertilization needs or pest management.  It is time to put into practice the current modifications and improvements in the "injection" technology. It is no longer valid to group all "injections" as essentially the same. The difference between a macro-injection in the root flare and a micro-injection on the trunk flare is as great as the difference between a live tree and a wooden electric pole . Although both are/were trees, they are not the same. We must objectively evaluate injections and categorize them appropriately by effective results and keep current with the research and improvements in both technique and material formulations. This could result in the loss of a technology that can become an important component of integrated systemic tree care programs.


Saving One Tree At A Time  -  Saving The Environment Every time

Photos and illustrations - Copyright Chemjet Trading Pty,Ltd, Australia
The Macro System

               Click on Photo to Enlarge

Karen Rockoff is the only ISA certified
arborist with

BEWARE- There are other persons fraudulently representing These persons are not authorized or licensed to use the name or inject with the chemjet system. Please contact Karen Rockoff immediately if these persons attempt to solicit these services. 

Contact:  Cell: 830.955.0304
                     Karen Rockoff  Arborist  - TDA Certified

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